1. create a new shared folder on the nas call it “data”
  2. enable NFSv4, disable NFSv3
  3. specify list of IPs that are allowed to access the NFSv4 share:
    • don’t forget to hit “Apply”
    • the idea is “anyway” to NAS<-directly-LAN-1000MBit->PC connect the NAS to the GNU Linux 10 based PC for maximum speed (PC will get fixed IP so no problem here)
lsb_release -a; # tested on
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID:	Debian
Description:	Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
Release:	10
Codename:	buster

su - root; # become root
# create mount point
mkdir /media/user/nfs/

# the actual mounting process
mount -v -t nfs4 /media/user/nfs/

possible errors: portmap query failed: RPC: Program/version mismatch / Protocol not supported

in this case what fixed those errors, was to allow access from specific list of IPs, that is how auth in NFS works, no password, no username, just “this IP is allowed and no other”:

mount.nfs4: timeout set for Mon Mar 14 16:32:09 2022
mount.nfs4: trying text-based options 'vers=4.2,addr=,clientaddr='
mount.nfs4: mount(2): Protocol not supported
mount.nfs4: trying text-based options 'vers=4.1,addr=,clientaddr='
mount.nfs4: mount(2): No such file or directory
mount.nfs4: trying text-based options 'addr='
mount.nfs4: prog 100003, trying vers=3, prot=6
mount.nfs4: trying prog 100003 vers 3 prot TCP port 2049
mount.nfs4: portmap query retrying: RPC: Program/version mismatch
mount.nfs4: prog 100003, trying vers=3, prot=17
mount.nfs4: trying prog 100003 vers 3 prot UDP port 2049
mount.nfs4: portmap query failed: RPC: Program/version mismatch
mount.nfs4: Protocol not supported


while QNAP THINKS it does goad by loading MASSIVE amounts of pre installed stuff on their devices and promising “your personal cloud” QNAP actually creates A GIANT SECURITY PROBLEM because users WRONGLY trusting that QNAP NAS DEVICES ARE SUPER SECURE GNU LINUX (BUSY)BOXES and then DIRECTLY make the NAS accessible via internet from outside via various (more or less secure protocols, SMB/FTP/NFS ALL NOT SECURE PROTOCOLS!)

2022-03: hewego again: https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/qnap-warns-severe-openssl-bug-affects-most-of-its-nas-devices/

JavaScript makes the mess even worse:

because JavaScript running on hacked websites, even allows, a scanning of the user’s network (from inside, not from outside) for vulnerable devices, devices that are not often firmware updated such as (TP-LINK) routers or surveillance cams or other IoT devices with insecure logins.

so in theory, just by browing a hacked website, JS could infiltrate a vulnerable QNAP. How is that for a security problem?

Thus this blog is CAMPAIGNING FOR YEARS for restricting JavaScript capabilities that are limited to GUI stuff only (animations and nice menus, not allowing JS to send maliciously crafted TCP requests that can hijack things!!!).

QNAP NAS and NFS, FTP protocol are intended to be used behind a firewall within a company net to store only backups, not unique data that might get lost BECAUSE OF A FIRMWARE BUG. (it has happened before, so even UPDATING (!!!) A QNAP NAS CAN LEAD TO LOSS OF DATA! (SO MAKE SURE TO HAVE A BACKUP OF THE BACKUP BEFORE UPDATING, THIS IS WHAT HAPPENS IF THE CEO CALLS ALL THE SHOTS, IGNORING ANY ITSEC AWARE TECHNICIAN and saving budget on software quality testing (“how many devices does our update break?”)

“my entire CD collection: gone”

less is sometimes more:

some performance & security optimizations that should be done:

  • give it a fixed IP that can not reach the internet (give it no gateway) to make it impossible for the QNAP NAS to pull the latest ransomeware X-D
  • go through ALL settings and disable ALL service that are not needed (Windows-Samba-Sharing, AFS Apple FileSharing, UPnP)
  • furthermore: ssh into the nas and modify crontab to not start those services:
  • # every hour make sure mytranscode media bloatware is stopped!
    0 * * * * /etc/init.d/QMediaService.sh stop
    # every hour make sure cups service is stopped (not needed free ram for something else)
    0 * * * * /etc/init.d/cupsd.sh stop
  • run ps uax to checkout any unecessary service that might still be running & consuming resources

here is the output in this case:

ps uax
  PID  Uid     VmSize Stat Command
    1 admin       644 S   init       
    2 admin           SW  [kthreadd]
    3 admin           SW  [ksoftirqd/0]
    6 admin           SW< [khelper]
    7 admin           SW  [kworker/u:1]
  139 admin           SW  [sync_supers]
  141 admin           SW  [bdi-default]
  142 admin           SW< [kblockd]
  148 admin           SW< [ata_sff]
  158 admin           SW  [khubd]
  160 admin           SW  [kethubd]
  165 admin           SW< [md]
  258 admin           SW  [kswapd0]
  259 admin           SW  [fsnotify_mark]
  261 admin           SW< [crypto]
  358 admin           SW  [scsi_eh_0]
  361 admin           SW  [scsi_eh_1]
  365 admin           SW  [kworker/u:3]
  374 admin           SW  [scsi_eh_2]
  377 admin           SW  [scsi_eh_3]
  388 admin           SW< [orion_spi]
  396 admin           SW  [mtdblock0]
  400 admin           SW  [mtdblock1]
  404 admin           SW  [mtdblock2]
  408 admin           SW  [mtdblock3]
  412 admin           SW  [mtdblock4]
  416 admin           SW  [mtdblock5]
  441 admin           SW< [deferwq]
  475 admin           SW  [flush-1:0]
  578 admin      1276 S   /bin/sh /sbin/hotplug usb 
  583 admin      1532 S   /bin/sh /etc/hotplug/usb.agent 
  651 admin           SW  [md9_raid1]
  688 admin           SW  [md13_raid1]
  773 admin           SW  [kjournald]
 1144 admin           SW< [dm-block-clone]
 1164 admin           SW  [mv_crypto]
 1177 admin           SW< [cryptodev_queue]
 1209 admin           SW< [rpciod]
 1216 admin           SW< [nfsiod]
 1223 admin           SW< [cifsiod]
 1234 admin           SW  [fnotify]
 1244 admin           SW< [cfg80211]
 1265 admin       472 S < qWatchdogd: keeping alive every 1 seconds...
 1459 admin           SW  [flush-9:0]
 1736 admin           SW  [kjournald]
 1873 admin       980 S   /sbin/modagent 
 1918 admin           SW  [md2_raid1]
 2167 admin      1304 S   /bin/sh /etc/init.d/mtp_run.sh 
 2310 admin       632 S   /sbin/kerrd 
 2407 admin           SW  [md0_raid1]
 2409 admin           RWN [md0_resync]
 2760 admin           SW  [jbd2/md0-8]
 2761 admin           SW< [ext4-dio-unwrit]
 2821 admin      1688 S   /sbin/hotswap 
 2826 admin      1428 S   /sbin/qsmartd -d 
 3161 admin      5604 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/fcgi-pm      -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3168 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3169 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3170 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3171 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3172 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 3188 admin      6512 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/fcgi-pm       -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 3196 httpdusr   6904 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache -k start -c PidFile /var/lock/apache.pid -f /etc/config/apache/apache.conf 
 3197 httpdusr   6904 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache -k start -c PidFile /var/lock/apache.pid -f /etc/config/apache/apache.conf 
 3198 httpdusr   6928 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache -k start -c PidFile /var/lock/apache.pid -f /etc/config/apache/apache.conf 
 3287 admin      3132 S   sshd: admin@pts/1                                        
 3315 admin      1484 S   -sh 
 3324 admin      1476 S   bash 
 3358 admin      9544 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 3398 admin      9472 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 3404 admin      9424 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 3420 admin      9140 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 3421 admin      9164 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 4017 admin      6588 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
# yes it runs a full blown mysql database server
 4244 admin     45236 S   /usr/local/mariadb/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/usr/local/mariadb/my-mariadb.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/mariadb --datadir=/share/MD0_DATA/.system/data --plugin-dir=/usr/local/mariadb/lib/
 4365 admin      2388 S   /sbin/qpkgd -d0 
 4420 guest      1084 S   /usr/sbin/dbus-daemon --system 
 5328 admin      2380 S   /usr/local/sbin/_thttpd_ -p 58080 -nor -nos -u admin -d /home/httpd -c **.* -h -i /var/lock/._thttpd_.pid 
 5609 admin     22128 S < /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxy -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy.conf 
 5718 httpdusr   1148 S   /sbin/lpb_scheduler -d 
 5760 admin      1560 S   /sbin/genthd 
 5948 admin           SW< [krfcommd]
 5973 admin      1480 S   /usr/sbin/bluetoothd 
 5982 admin       428 S   /usr/sbin/agent --adapter hci0 
 6044 admin      1916 S   /usr/local/sbin/remote_folder_daemon --reset 
 6202 admin       912 S   /usr/sbin/ntpdated 
 6216 admin      1600 S   /usr/sbin/upsutil 
 6478 admin      2756 S   /usr/sbin/sshd -f /etc/config/ssh/sshd_config -p 1234 
 6744 admin     23660 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
 7211 admin      1348 S   /usr/bin/lunportman 
 7264 admin      2080 S   /sbin/bcclient 
 7347 admin      1944 S   /sbin/picd 
 7350 admin      1724 S   /sbin/gpiod 
 7355 admin      1868 S   /sbin/hwmond 
 7432 admin       816 S N /usr/bin/rsyncd --daemon --sever-mode=1 --qnap-bwlimit 
 7728 admin      1880 S   /sbin/hd_util 
 7730 admin       552 S   /sbin/gen_bandwidth -r -i 5 
 7863 admin      1128 S   /bin/sh /etc/init.d/klogd.sh start 
 7872 admin      1748 S   qNoticeEngined: Write notice is enabled...
 7885 admin      1304 S   /sbin/qsyslogd 
 7893 admin      1392 S   /sbin/qShield 
 7907 admin      1956 S   qLogEngined: Write log is disabled...
 7964 admin       460 S   /bin/dd if=/proc/kmsg of=/mnt/HDA_ROOT/.logs/kmsg bs=1 count=1024000 
 8131 admin           SW< [iscsi_eh]
 8179 admin           SW  [qnap_et]
 8250 admin       448 S   /sbin/iscsid --config=/etc/config/iscsi/sbin/iscsid.conf --initiatorname=/etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi 
 8251 admin      2248 S < /sbin/iscsid --config=/etc/config/iscsi/sbin/iscsid.conf --initiatorname=/etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi 
 8296 admin      1512 S   /sbin/vdd_control -d 
 8943 admin       820 S   /usr/bin/portmap 
 9189 admin       232 S   /usr/sbin/rpc.rquotad -p 30002 
 9465 admin      2476 S   /usr/sbin/rpc.mountd -p 30000 -F 
 9628 admin           SW  [lockd]
 9629 admin           SW< [nfsd4]
 9631 admin           SW< [nfsd4_callbacks]
 9633 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9634 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9635 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9636 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9637 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9638 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9639 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9640 admin           SW  [nfsd]
 9775 admin      1440 S   /usr/sbin/rpc.idmapd 
 9784 admin      1940 S   /usr/sbin/rpc.statd -p 30001 
 9826 admin      1280 S   /sbin/daemon_mgr 
 9886 admin      2012 S   /usr/local/bin/qb_daemon -d 7 
 9906 admin      2048 S   /usr/bin/qsyncman 
10321 admin      2032 S   /sbin/upnpcd -i 300 
11289 admin      3860 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache-dav -k start -f /etc/apache-dav-sys.conf 
11296 admin      2024 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache-dav -k start -f /etc/apache-dav-sys.conf 
11516 admin       592 S   /sbin/getty 115200 ttyS0 
11731 admin     23484 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache -k start -c PidFile /var/lock/apache.pid -f /etc/config/apache/apache.conf 
12927 admin           SW  [kworker/0:1]
14999 admin      3136 S   sshd: admin@pts/2                                        
15024 admin      1488 S   -sh 
15291 admin      1568 S   bash 
15461 admin      8360 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
16254 admin           SW  [kworker/0:2]
16963 admin           SW  [flush-9:9]
18716 admin       748 S   /usr/sbin/crond -l 9 -c /tmp/cron/crontabs 
18893 admin      8932 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
19588 admin           SW  [kworker/0:0]
20944 admin      6764 S   /usr/local/apache/bin/apache_proxys -k start -f /etc/apache-sys-proxy-ssl.conf 
23461 admin           SW  [kworker/0:3]
23685 admin       400 S   /bin/sleep 1 
23686 admin       784 R   ps uax 
23687 admin      1848 R   chartReq.cgi 
23688 admin      1076 S   /usr/local/sbin/_thttpd_ -p 58080 -nor -nos -u admin -d /home/httpd -c **.* -h -i /var/lock/._thttpd_.pid 
30445 admin           SW  [flush-9:13]

related articles:

probably the best way to get rid of QNAP’s bloatware: overwrite the firmware & install basic GNU Linux Debian (untested!)

GNU Linux -> Debian how to install on Qnap Turbo Station TS-219P

GNU Linux (Debian) – how to setup nfs server and mount nfs share

other problems: finding the IP:

wireshark is the user’s friend when it comes to finding the QNAP NAS IP

the QUICK.cgi webserver config problem:

when reset, the QNAP NAS firmware goes into “setup mode” but sometimes this goes wrong (misconfiguration of the webserver).

what then happens, instead of a web gui, the user’s browser receives a file binary program file QUICK.cgi for download,

this is what happens if the webserver is misconfigured,

and instead of running the QUICK.cgi on the NAS to return the website that is the web interface, it downloads the QUICK.cgi binary. (#wtf X-D)

# instead of web interface
# it does some kind of redicet
# and offers to download a file QUICK.cgi (which is a binary program file)
# so there is something messed up in the webserver config

# ssh into it
setcfg Misc Configured TRUE

# try again




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