hotkeys = shortcuts.

/* Signals.  */
#define SIGHUP      1   /* Hangup (POSIX).  */
#define SIGINT      2   /* Interrupt (ANSI).  */
#define SIGQUIT     3   /* Quit (POSIX).  */
#define SIGILL      4   /* Illegal instruction (ANSI).  */
#define SIGTRAP     5   /* Trace trap (POSIX).  */
#define SIGABRT     6   /* Abort (ANSI).  */
#define SIGIOT      6   /* IOT trap (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGBUS      7   /* BUS error (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGFPE      8   /* Floating-point exception (ANSI).  */
#define SIGKILL     9   /* Kill, unblockable (POSIX).  */
#define SIGUSR1     10  /* User-defined signal 1 (POSIX).  */
#define SIGSEGV     11  /* Segmentation violation (ANSI).  */
#define SIGUSR2     12  /* User-defined signal 2 (POSIX).  */
#define SIGPIPE     13  /* Broken pipe (POSIX).  */
#define SIGALRM     14  /* Alarm clock (POSIX).  */
#define SIGTERM     15  /* Termination (ANSI).  */
#define SIGSTKFLT   16  /* Stack fault.  */
#define SIGCLD      SIGCHLD /* Same as SIGCHLD (System V).  */
#define SIGCHLD     17  /* Child status has changed (POSIX).  */
#define SIGCONT     18  /* Continue (POSIX).  */
#define SIGSTOP     19  /* Stop, unblockable (POSIX).  */
#define SIGTSTP     20  /* Keyboard stop (POSIX).  */
#define SIGTTIN     21  /* Background read from tty (POSIX).  */
#define SIGTTOU     22  /* Background write to tty (POSIX).  */
#define SIGURG      23  /* Urgent condition on socket (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGXCPU     24  /* CPU limit exceeded (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGXFSZ     25  /* File size limit exceeded (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGVTALRM   26  /* Virtual alarm clock (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGPROF     27  /* Profiling alarm clock (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGWINCH    28  /* Window size change (4.3 BSD, Sun).  */
#define SIGPOLL     SIGIO   /* Pollable event occurred (System V).  */
#define SIGIO       29  /* I/O now possible (4.2 BSD).  */
#define SIGPWR      30  /* Power failure restart (System V).  */
#define SIGSYS      31  /* Bad system call.  */


Ctrl+D = End-Of-Line, EOL (not a signal i guess)

Question: What signal is send by Ctrl+C? (scroll down for answer)




The SIGINT (“program interrupt”) signal is sent when the user types the INTR character (normally C-c). See Special Characters, for information about terminal driver support for C-c


SIGKILL: Terminates a process immediately. This signal cannot be handled (caught), ignored or blocked. (The “kill -9” command in linux generates the same signal).

SIGTERM: Terminates a process immediately. However, this signal can be handled, ignored or caught in code.

Unlike SIGKILL, this signal can be blocked, handled, and ignored. It is the normal way to politely ask a program to terminate.

The shell command kill generates SIGTERM by default.

If the signal is not caught by a process, the process is killed. Also, this is used for graceful termination of a process. (The “kill” command in linux if specified without any signal number like -9, will send SIGTERM)

SIGINT: Interrupts a process. (The default action is to terminate gracefully).

This too, like, SIGTERM can be handled, ignored or caught.

The difference between SIGINT and SIGTERM is that SIGINT can be sent via keyboard-hotkey Strg+C from a terminal as input characters – SIGTERM can probably only be send between programs. (no direct interaction keyboard->program, but process->process)

This is the signal generated when a user presses Ctrl+C. (Sidenote: Ctrl+C denotes EOT(End of Transmission) for (say) a network stream)

SIGQUIT: Terminates a process. This is different from both SIGKILL and SIGTERM in the sense that it generates a core dump of the process and also cleans up resources held up by a process. Like SIGINT, this can also be sent from the terminal as input characters. It can be handled, ignored or caught in code. This is the signal generated when a user presses Ctrl+\.

SIGSTP: Suspends a process. This too, can be handled, ignored or blocked. Since it does not terminate the process, the process can be resumed by sending a SIGCONT signal. This signal can be generated by pressing Ctrl+Z. (Sidenote: Ctrl+Z stands for substitute character which indicates End-of-File in DOS)

SIGHUP: (From Wikipedia): Hangs up a process when the controlling terminal is disconnected. This especially relates to modem/dial in connections. A process has to explicitly handle this signal for it to work. A good use is to “poke” a process and letting the process (as defined by the programmer) decide what to do with the signal is described here. Hence, SIGHUP can be handled, ignored or caught. This is the signal generated when a user presses Ctrl+D.


list of all terminal control character assignments:

uname -a; # tested on
Linux debian 3.16.0-4-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3.16.43-2 (2017-04-30) i686 GNU/Linux

stty -a
speed 38400 baud; rows 57; columns 164; line = 0;
intr = ^C; quit = ^\; erase = ^H; kill = ^U; eof = ^D; eol = ; eol2 = ; swtch = ; start = ^Q; stop = ^S; susp = ^Z; rprnt = ^R; werase = ^W;
lnext = ^V; flush = ^O; min = 1; time = 0;
-parenb -parodd -cmspar cs8 -hupcl -cstopb cread -clocal -crtscts
-ignbrk -brkint -ignpar -parmrk -inpck -istrip -inlcr -igncr icrnl ixon -ixoff -iuclc -ixany -imaxbel -iutf8
opost -olcuc -ocrnl onlcr -onocr -onlret -ofill -ofdel nl0 cr0 tab0 bs0 vt0 ff0
isig icanon iexten echo echoe echok -echonl -noflsh -xcase -tostop -echoprt echoctl echoke

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