Category: General / Allgemein

about – x11 display server – display or login manager – window manager

The X11 Window System Developer(s) X.Org Foundation  Initial release 6 April 2004; 13 years ago[1] Stable release 1.19.3 / 15 March 2017; 2 months ago[2] Repository, git://, git:// Written in C Operating system Cross-platform Size 3.7 MiB[3] Available in English Type Display […]

top10 most used mail servers – segfault exim4

a hacked e-mail account is a catastrophe – look at Hillary. telnet 25; # a simple telnet tells you that this server is running Trying… Connected to Escape character is ‚^]‘. 220 ESMTP Exim 4.XX_X Tue, […]


passwd -l maria; # disables account maria passwd: password expiry information changed. grep maria /etc/shadow maria:!$6$w9DaelrP$/tJiXC2PU0B.XOupP0sFTySis5VfkMwv0DnoFy3.d.nC8gXJU.DSbU0Uryyex40P67keCFoQuxEjZ8RD9kDGU0:17325:0:99999:7::: passwd -u maria; # enable account maria passwd: password expiry information changed. /etc/passwd grep /bin/bash /etc/passwd; # output all interactive user accounts that use […]

gpg cheat sheed – encrypting files with gpg

Warning! while gpg is very likely sound and solid encryption – what is far more likely to be compromised is YOUR HARDWARE – every network card – wifi card – usb UMTS G3 modem – PCI-Card – contains enough RAM […]

cool stuff you can do with ssh

i assume you have setup public-private-key-authentication and tested its workings. run local scripts remotely You can run local scripts remotely by executing bash on the remote system and feeding it your script ssh user@host ‚bash -s‘ < script.s sftp kick […]


looks different in every distro… Debian8 root@debian:~# uname -a; # tested on Linux debian 3.16.0-4-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3.16.43-2 (2017-04-30) i686 GNU/Linux root@debian:~# ll /etc/X11/ total 72K drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Jun 2 15:39 app-defaults -rw-r–r– 1 root root […]


Everything in Linux is presented as files and folders – even devices – even your printer. And that is also how almost everything is read-write-accessed – as files. /dev, /proc and /sys are „virtual (pseudo) filesystems“ (not existing on harddisk, […]


Yay! There are now 3500 Linux games on Steam i wonder if you can play all android(java) games on a PC as well?


What is glibc? The GNU C Library project provides the core libraries for the GNU system and GNU/Linux systems, as well as many other systems that use Linux as the kernel. These libraries provide critical APIs including ISO C11, POSIX.1-2008, […]


What are kernel modules? What exactly is a kernel module? Modules are pieces of code that can be loaded and unloaded into the kernel upon demand without rebooting the system. Without modules, we would have to build monolithic kernels and […]


yeah i know i sometimes make fun of distributions that have like a partition for every /root/folder but well yes it has it’s reasons. suse12 uname -a; # tested with Linux suse 4.4.21-69-default #1 SMP Tue Oct 25 10:58:20 UTC […]

linux CentOS7 – install MATE Gnome2 based Desktop

yum install epel-release yum groupinstall „X Window system“ yum groupinstall „MATE Desktop“ systemctl isolate; # Tell your systemd to start the per default unlink /etc/systemd/system/; ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/ /etc/systemd/system/; reboot; you should get a grafical login prompt now […]


this article might be largely incomplete… kernel ringbuffer boot messages messages from the kernel during first stages of boot. # all distros dmesg; # show kernel ring buffer boot messages log # Centos7 only (debian8 has the file but it […]


the commands used for xfs are different. this is only valid for ext3/ext4. preparation: you should move your /home to a separate partition. Warning! You will need to have „physical“ access to the server’s console in order to perform these […]