on the one hand – software biodiversity is good – if one system get’s hacked or virus infiltrated – the other’s – if „different enough“ probably stay unaffected.

on the other hand – if config files or procedures or command line tools are not standardized accross distributions = makes things too complicated = hard to comprehend and remember = causes errors and wastes time = bad 😀

debian8 (ubuntu)

ifup.debian8.man.txt

root@Debian9:~# which ifup
/sbin/ifup
root@Debian9:~# file /sbin/ifup
/sbin/ifup: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib/ld-linux.so.2, for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=33b7cd4bf09f8be12422d3c2a7aceb157341fef2, stripped

FILES
/etc/network/interfaces
definitions of network interfaces See interfaces(5) for more information.

example content:

root@Debian9:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

/run/network/ifstate
current state of network interfaces

the above example content displays eth0 using DHCP.

luckily things don’t change with every new version, if you would like to have a fixed ip change it to something like:

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
# allow-hotplug eth0
# iface eth0 inet dhcp
# fixed ipc
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.222
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1

ESC :X # save and quit in vim

root@Debian8:~# service networking restart

and settings should be active.

cenots7 (redhat)

ifup.centos7.man.txt

search how to set fixed ip on centos7

[root@CentOS7 ~]# which ifup
/usr/sbin/ifup
[root@CentOS7 ~]# file /usr/sbin/ifup
/usr/sbin/ifup: Bourne-Again shell script, ASCII text executable

FILES
/etc/sysconfig/network

example content:

[root@CentOS7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network
# Created by anaconda
NETWORKING=yes
[root@CentOS7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
DEFROUTE=yes
PEERDNS=yes
PEERROUTES=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=eth0
UUID=1f926ad0-9cd9-4adb-b8ec-5993ae40e333
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-<configuration>
The file defining an interface.

suse12 (suse12)

ifup.suse12.man.txt

search how to set fixed ip on suse12

suse12:~ # which ifup
/sbin/ifup
suse12:~ # file /sbin/ifup
/sbin/ifup: symbolic link to `/usr/sbin/ifup‘

suse12:~ # file /usr/sbin/ifup
/usr/sbin/ifup: Bourne-Again shell script, ASCII text executable

FILES
/sbin/ifup

The script itself.

/etc/sysconfig/network/config
General configuration options.

example content:

suse12:~ # cat /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-eth0
BOOTPROTO='dhcp'
BROADCAST=''
ETHTOOL_OPTIONS=''
IPADDR=''
MTU=''
NAME=''
NETMASK=''
NETWORK=''
REMOTE_IPADDR=''
STARTMODE='auto'
DHCLIENT_SET_DEFAULT_ROUTE='yes'

suse12:~ # cat /etc/sysconfig/network/config
## Path:        Network/General
## Description: Global network configuration
#
# Note:
# Most of the options can and should be overridden by per-interface
# settings in the ifcfg-* files.
#
# Note: The ISC dhclient started by the NetworkManager is not using any
# of these options -- NetworkManager is not using any sysconfig settings.
#

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     yes
# If ifup should check if an IPv4 address is already in use, set this to yes.
#
# Make sure that packet sockets (CONFIG_PACKET) are supported in the kernel,
# since this feature uses arp, which depends on that.
# Also be aware that this takes one second per interface; consider that when
# setting up a lot of interfaces.
CHECK_DUPLICATE_IP="yes"

## Type:        list(auto,yes,no)
## Default:     auto
# If ifup should send a gratuitous ARP to inform the receivers about its
# IPv4 addresses. Default is to send gratuitous ARP, when duplicate IPv4
# address check is enabled and the check were sucessful.
#
# Make sure that packet sockets (CONFIG_PACKET) are supported in the kernel,
# since this feature uses arp, which depends on that.
SEND_GRATUITOUS_ARP="auto"

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     no
# Switch on/off debug messages for all network configuration stuff. If set to no
# most scripts can enable it locally with "-o debug".
DEBUG="no"

## Type:        integer
## Default:     30
#
# Some interfaces need some time to come up or come asynchronously via hotplug.
# WAIT_FOR_INTERFACES is a global wait for all mandatory interfaces in
# seconds. If empty no wait occurs.
#
WAIT_FOR_INTERFACES="30"

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     yes
#
# With this variable you can determine if the SuSEfirewall when enabled
# should get started when network interfaces are started.
FIREWALL="yes"

## Type:        int
## Default:     30
#
# When using NetworkManager you may define a timeout to wait for NetworkManager
# to connect in NetworkManager-wait-online.service.  Other network services
# may require the system to have a valid network setup in order to succeed.
#
# This variable has no effect if NetworkManager is disabled.
#
NM_ONLINE_TIMEOUT="30"

## Type:        string
## Default:     "dns-resolver dns-bind ntp-runtime nis"
#
# This variable defines the start order of netconfig modules installed
# in the /etc/netconfig.d/ directory.
#
# To disable the execution of a module, don't remove it from the list
# but prepend it with a minus sign, "-ntp-runtime".
#
NETCONFIG_MODULES_ORDER="dns-resolver dns-bind dns-dnsmasq nis ntp-runtime"

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     no
#
# Enable netconfig verbose reporting.
#
NETCONFIG_VERBOSE="no"

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     no
#
# This variable enables netconfig to always force a replace of modified
# files and automatically enables the -f | --force-replace parameter.
#
# The purpose is to use it as workaround, when some other tool trashes
# the files, e.g. /etc/resolv.conf and you observe messages like this
# in your logs on in "netconfig update" output:
# ATTENTION: You have modified /etc/resolv.conf. Leaving it untouched.
#
# Please do not forget to also report a bug as we have a system policy
# to use netconfig.
#
NETCONFIG_FORCE_REPLACE="no"

## Type:        string
## Default:     "auto"
#
# Defines the DNS merge policy as documented in netconfig(8) manual page.
# Set to "" to disable DNS configuration.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_POLICY="auto"

## Type:        string(resolver,bind,dnsmasq,)
## Default:     "resolver"
#
# Defines the name of the DNS forwarder that has to be configured.
# Currently implemented are "bind", "dnsmasq" and "resolver", that
# causes to write the name server IP addresses to /etc/resolv.conf
# only (no forwarder). Empty string defaults to "resolver".
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_FORWARDER="resolver"

## Type:        yesno
## Default:     yes
#
# When enabled (default) in forwarder mode ("bind", "dnsmasq"),
# netconfig writes an explicit localhost nameserver address to the
# /etc/resolv.conf, followed by the policy resolved name server list
# as fallback for the moments, when the local forwarder is stopped.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_FORWARDER_FALLBACK="yes"

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# List of DNS domain names used for host-name lookup.
# It is written as search list into the /etc/resolv.conf file.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_STATIC_SEARCHLIST=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# List of DNS nameserver IP addresses to use for host-name lookup.
# When the NETCONFIG_DNS_FORWARDER variable is set to "resolver",
# the name servers are written directly to /etc/resolv.conf.
# Otherwise, the nameserver are written into a forwarder specific
# configuration file and the /etc/resolv.conf does not contain any
# nameservers causing the glibc to use the name server on the local
# machine (the forwarder). See also netconfig(8) manual page.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_STATIC_SERVERS=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     "auto"
#
# Allows to specify a custom DNS service ranking list, that is which
# services provide preferred (e.g. vpn services), and which services
# fallback settings (e.g. avahi).
# Preferred service names have to be prepended with a "+", fallback
# service names with a "-" character. The special default value
# "auto" enables the current build-in service ranking list -- see the
# netconfig(8) manual page -- "none" or "" disables the ranking.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_RANKING="auto"

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# Allows to specify options to use when writting the /etc/resolv.conf,
# for example:
#       "debug attempts:1 timeout:10"
# See resolv.conf(5) manual page for details.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_RESOLVER_OPTIONS=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# Allows to specify a sortlist to use when writting the /etc/resolv.conf,
# for example:
#       130.155.160.0/255.255.240.0 130.155.0.0"
# See resolv.conf(5) manual page for details.
#
NETCONFIG_DNS_RESOLVER_SORTLIST=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     "auto"
#
# Defines the NTP merge policy as documented in netconfig(8) manual page.
# Set to "" to disable NTP configuration.
#
NETCONFIG_NTP_POLICY="auto"

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# List of NTP servers.
#
NETCONFIG_NTP_STATIC_SERVERS=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     "auto"
#
# Defines the NIS merge policy as documented in netconfig(8) manual page.
# Set to "" to disable NIS configuration.
#
NETCONFIG_NIS_POLICY="auto"

## Type:        string(yes,no,)
## Default:     "yes"
#
# Defines whether to set the default NIS domain. When enabled and no domain
# is provided dynamically or in static settings, /etc/defaultdomain is used.
# Valid values are:
#  - "no" or ""         netconfig does not set the domainname
#  - "yes"              netconfig sets the domainname according to the
#                       NIS policy using settings provided by the first
#                       iterface and service that provided it.
#  - "" as yes, but only using settings from interface.
#
NETCONFIG_NIS_SETDOMAINNAME="yes"

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# Defines a default NIS domain.
#
# Further domain can be specified by adding a "_" suffix to
# the NETCONFIG_NIS_STATIC_DOMAIN and NETCONFIG_NIS_STATIC_SERVERS
# variables, e.g.: NETCONFIG_NIS_STATIC_DOMAIN_1="second".
#
NETCONFIG_NIS_STATIC_DOMAIN=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# Defines a list of NIS servers for the default NIS domain or the
# domain specified with same "_" suffix.
#
NETCONFIG_NIS_STATIC_SERVERS=""

## Type:        string
## Default:     ''
#
# Set this variable global variable to the ISO / IEC 3166 alpha2
# country code specifying the wireless regulatory domain to set.
# When not empty, ifup-wireless will be set in the wpa_supplicant
# config or via 'iw reg set' command.
#
# Note: This option requires a wpa driver supporting it, like
# the 'nl80211' driver used by default since openSUSE 11.3.
# When you notice problems with your hardware, please file a
# bug report and set e.g. WIRELESS_WPA_DRIVER='wext' (the old
# default driver) in the ifcfg file.
# See also "/usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant --help" for the list of
# available wpa drivers.
#
WIRELESS_REGULATORY_DOMAIN=''
## Type:        integer
## Default:     ""
#
# How log to wait for IPv6 autoconfig in ifup when requested with
# the auto6 or +auto6 tag in BOOTPROTO variable.
# When unset, a wicked built-in default defer time (10sec) is used.
#
AUTO6_WAIT_AT_BOOT=""

## Type:        list(all,dns,none,"")
## Default:     ""
#
# Whether to update system (DNS) settings from IPv6 RA when requested
# with the auto6 or +auto6 tag in BOOTPROTO variable.
# Defaults to update if autoconf sysctl (address autoconf) is enabled.
#
AUTO6_UPDATE=""

## Type:        list(auto,yes,no)
## Default:     "auto"
#
# Permits to specify/modify a global ifcfg default. Use with care!
#
# This settings breaks rules for many things, which require carrier
# before they can start, e.g. L2 link protocols, link authentication,
# ipv4 duplicate address detection, ipv6 duplicate detection will
# happen "post-mortem" and maybe even cause to disable ipv6 at all.
# See also "man ifcfg" for further informations.
#
LINK_REQUIRED="auto"

## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
#
# Allows to specify a comma separated list of debug facilities used
# by wicked. Negated facility names can be prepended by a "-", e.g.:
#   "all,-events,-socket,-objectmodel,xpath,xml,dbus"
#
# When set, wicked debug level is automatically enabled.
# For a complete list of facility names, see: "wicked --debug help".
#
WICKED_DEBUG=""

## Type:        list("",error,warning,notice,info,debug,debug1,debug2,debug3)
## Default:     ""
#
# Allows to specify wicked debug level. Default level is "notice".
#
WICKED_LOG_LEVEL=""

/etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg- <configuration-name>

The files containing the configuration of the devices. An example that shows a typical configuration with the name ifcfg-eth0:

IPADDRESS=10.10.11.184
NETMASK=255.255.0.0
BROADCAST=10.10.255.255
STARTMODE=onboot
BOOTPROTO=static

/etc/sysconfig/network/ifroute- <configuration-name>

You can specify individual routes for every configuration in these files. See routes (5) for a detailed description.


				
									
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