Basically all filesystems that are compiled into the kernel you are using.
(otherwise it won’t be able to access the /root partition and the whole thing won’t boot)
You can use those listed filesystems to install your linux into it (/root-partition)… but you can not use VFAT-Family(FAT16,FAT32 and probably also not exFAT :-D) Debian8 says. They must know.
- ext2 ( Rémy Card )
- ext3 (Stephen Tweedie)
- jfs (IBM)
- xfs (Silicon Graphics (SGI)Red Hat)
- ReiserFS (by the intelligent criminal that killed his wife Namesys)
you can also NOT use SWAP as root partition 😀 (damn it)