What are kernel modules?

What exactly is a kernel module?

Modules are pieces of code that can be loaded and unloaded into the kernel upon demand without rebooting the system.

Without modules, we would have to build monolithic kernels and add new functionality directly into the kernel image.

Monolithic kernels pose security threat and are probably also hard to debug and test.

The trend is actually micro-kernels… kernels that have very little functionality and thus surface of attack. (Minix and GNU HURD Linux use micro kernel concept)

They extend the functionality of the kernel without the need to reboot the system.

For example, one type of module is the device driver or support for a certain file-system – which allows the kernel to access hardware and data of connected devices.

Sometimes it makes sense to have functionality inside the kernel and sometimes not.

With NFS for example it is better to have it compiled into the kernel – you could also load is as kernel-module – but it would be slower – because kernel and module would have to communicate a lot. (this is what i was told :-D)

(src)

in general

# list loaded modules
lsmod

# show modules config parameters
modprobe --showconfig

# modules are located in
ll /sys/module/
total 0
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 8250
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 ablk_helper
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 acpi
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 acpiphp
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 aes_i586
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 aesni_intel
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 apparmor
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 ata_generic
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 ata_piix
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 auth_rpcgss
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 autofs4
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 15:56 binfmt_misc
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 block
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 btrfs
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 button
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cpufreq_conservative
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cpufreq_powersave
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cpufreq_stats
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cpufreq_userspace
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cpuidle
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crc16
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crc32c_intel
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crc32_pclmul
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crc_t10dif
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crct10dif_common
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 crct10dif_generic
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 cryptd
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 dynamic_debug
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 evdev
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 ext4
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 firmware_class
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 floppy
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 fscache
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 fuse
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 gf128mul
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hid
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hid_generic
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hid_hyperv
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hv_netvsc
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hv_storvsc
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hv_utils
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hv_vmbus
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hyperv_fb
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 hyperv_keyboard
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 i2c_core
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 i2c_piix4
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 i8042
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 intel_idle
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 ipv6
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 jbd2
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 joydev
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 kernel
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 keyboard
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 libata
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 lockd
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 lrw
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 mbcache
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 mousedev
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 netpoll
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 nfs
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 nfs_acl
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 nfsd
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 oid_registry
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pcie_aspm
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pciehp
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pci_hotplug
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pci_slot
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pcspkr
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 printk
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 processor
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 May 19 14:50 psmouse
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 pstore
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 raid6_pq
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 rcupdate
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 rcutree
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 scsi_mod
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 sd_mod
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 serio_raw
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 sg
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 spurious
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 sr_mod
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 May 19 14:50 sunrpc
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 sysrq
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 tcp_cubic
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 thermal_sys
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 vt
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 workqueue
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 xor
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 May 19 14:50 xts
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 May 19 14:50 xz_dec
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 May 19 14:50 zswap

location of modules – load modules during boot – dependencies – alias – blacklist

### debian8

/etc/modules
# kernel modules to load at boot time.
# This file contains the names of kernel modules that should be loaded
# at boot time, one per line. Lines beginning with "#" are ignored.

ll /etc/modprobe.d/
total 8.0K
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 390 Jan  7 04:33 fbdev-blacklist.conf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  51 Jul 13  2015 modesetting.conf

cat /etc/modprobe.d/modesetting.conf
options cirrus modeset=1
options mgag200 modeset=1

cat /etc/modprobe.d/fbdev-blacklist.conf
# This file blacklists most old-style PCI framebuffer drivers.

blacklist arkfb
blacklist aty128fb
blacklist atyfb
blacklist radeonfb
blacklist cirrusfb
blacklist cyber2000fb
blacklist kyrofb
blacklist matroxfb_base
blacklist mb862xxfb
blacklist neofb
blacklist pm2fb
blacklist pm3fb
blacklist s3fb
blacklist savagefb
blacklist sisfb
blacklist tdfxfb
blacklist tridentfb
blacklist vt8623fb

# You can find the answer in the wiki: the idea is that one does
# not use
/etc/modprobe/blacklist.conf.
# Instead, say you want to blacklist pcspkr. You create a
/etc/modprobe/pcspkr.conf
# file in  and put blacklist pcspkr inside. Then run
depmod -ae && update-initramfs -u

### suse12
suse:/home/user # ll /sys/module/
insgesamt 0
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 8250
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ablk_helper
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 acpi
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 acpi_cpufreq
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 acpiphp
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 aesni_intel
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 aes_x86_64
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 af_packet
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ahci
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ansi_cprng
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 apparmor
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ata_generic
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ata_piix
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 autofs4
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 binfmt_misc
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 block
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 btrfs
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 button
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 core
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 cpuidle
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 crc32c_intel
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 crc32_pclmul
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 crct10dif_pclmul
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 cryptd
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 debug_core
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 dm_mod
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 dm_multipath
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 drbg
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 dynamic_debug
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 efivars
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 firmware_class
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 fjes
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 floppy
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 fuse
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 gf128mul
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 glue_helper
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hid
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hid_generic
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hid_hyperv
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hv_netvsc
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hv_storvsc
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hv_utils
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hv_vmbus
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hyperv_fb
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 hyperv_keyboard
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 i2c_piix4
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 i8042
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ima
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 intel_idle
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip6table_filter
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip6table_mangle
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip6table_raw
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip6_tables
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip6t_REJECT
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 iptable_filter
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 iptable_raw
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ip_tables
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ipt_REJECT
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 ipv6
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 iscsi_boot_sysfs
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 iscsi_ibft
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 joydev
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 kdb
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 kernel
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 keyboard
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 kgdboc
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 libahci
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 libata
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 libcrc32c
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 lrw
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 module
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 mousedev
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 netpoll
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_conntrack
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_conntrack_broadcast
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_conntrack_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_conntrack_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_conntrack_netbios_ns
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_defrag_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_defrag_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_log_common
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_log_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 nf_log_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pcie_aspm
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pciehp
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pci_hotplug
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pci_slot
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pcspkr
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 printk
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 processor
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 psmouse
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 pstore
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 raid6_pq
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 rcupdate
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 rcutree
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 rng_core
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 scsi_dh_alua
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 scsi_dh_emc
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 scsi_dh_rdac
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 scsi_mod
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 scsi_transport_fc
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 sd_mod
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 serio_raw
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 sg
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 spurious
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 sr_mod
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 suspend
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 sysrq
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 tcp_cubic
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 tpm
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 tpm_tis
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 uv_nmi
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 vmd
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 vt
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 workqueue
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xfs
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xor
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 x_tables
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_conntrack
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_CT
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_limit
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_LOG
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_pkttype
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xt_tcpudp
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 xz_dec
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:13 zswap

### centos7

lsmod|grep xfs
xfs                   985426  3
libcrc32c              12644  1 xfs

ll /etc/modprobe.d/
insgesamt 20K
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root   41  2. Mai 15:59 .
drwxr-xr-x. 112 root root 8,0K 19. Mai 09:39 ..
-rw-r--r--.   1 root root 1004  6. Nov 2016  mlx4.conf
-rw-r--r--.   1 root root  673 14. Jun 2016  tuned.conf

ll /etc/modules-load.d/
insgesamt 12K
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 12. Apr 21:57 .
drwxr-xr-x. 112 root root 8,0K 19. Mai 09:39 ..

ll /sys/module/
insgesamt 0
drwxr-xr-x. 142 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 .
dr-xr-xr-x.  13 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ..
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 8250
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ablk_helper
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 acpi
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 acpiphp
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 aesni_intel
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ata_generic
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ata_piix
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 battery
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 11:51 binfmt_misc
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 block
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 bridge
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 configfs
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 cpuidle
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 crc32c_intel
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 crc32_pclmul
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 crc_t10dif
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 crct10dif_common
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 crct10dif_generic
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 crct10dif_pclmul
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 cryptd
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 debug_core
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 dm_log
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 dm_mirror
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 dm_mod
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 dm_region_hash
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 dynamic_debug
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ebtable_broute
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ebtable_filter
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ebtable_nat
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ebtables
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 efi_pstore
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 efivars
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ehci_hcd
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 firmware_class
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 fjes
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 floppy
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 gf128mul
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ghash_clmulni_intel
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 glue_helper
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hid
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hid_apple
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hid_hyperv
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hid_magicmouse
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hid_ntrig
drwxr-xr-x.   7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hv_netvsc
drwxr-xr-x.   7 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hv_storvsc
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 hv_utils
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hv_vmbus
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hyperv_fb
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 hyperv_keyboard
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 i2c_core
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 i2c_piix4
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 i8042
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 intel_idle
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 intel_powerclamp
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iosf_mbi
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6table_filter
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6table_mangle
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6table_nat
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6table_raw
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6_tables
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6table_security
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6t_REJECT
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip6t_rpfilter
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ip_set
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iptable_filter
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iptable_mangle
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iptable_nat
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iptable_raw
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ip_tables
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 iptable_security
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 ipt_REJECT
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 ipv6
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 kdb_main
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 kernel
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 keyboard
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 kgdboc
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 kgdbts
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 libata
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 libcrc32c
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 llc
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 lrw
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 md_mod
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 module
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 mousedev
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 netpoll
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_conntrack
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_conntrack_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_conntrack_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_defrag_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_defrag_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_nat
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_nat_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_nat_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nfnetlink
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_reject_ipv4
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 nf_reject_ipv6
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pata_acpi
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pcie_aspm
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pciehp
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pci_hotplug
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pci_slot
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pcmcia_core
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 pcspkr
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 printk
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 processor
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 psmouse
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 pstore
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 random
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 rcupdate
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 rcutree
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 rng_core
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 scsi_dh_alua
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 scsi_dh_rdac
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 scsi_mod
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 sd_mod
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 serio_raw
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 sg
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 spurious
drwxr-xr-x.   6 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 sr_mod
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 stp
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 sysrq
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 tcp_cubic
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 thermal
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 tpm
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 tpm_tis
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 uhci_hcd
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 usbcore
drwxr-xr-x.   4 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 usbhid
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 user_namespace
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 uv_nmi
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 vmd
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 vt
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 workqueue
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 xfs
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 xhci_hcd
drwxr-xr-x.   5 root root 0 19. Mai 09:38 xt_conntrack
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 xz_dec
drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root 0 19. Mai 16:00 zswap

dependencies

# debian8
find / -iname '*modules*dep*'
/lib/modules/3.16.0-4-686-pae/modules.dep
/lib/modules/3.16.0-4-686-pae/modules.softdep
/lib/modules/3.16.0-4-686-pae/modules.dep.bin

# suse12
find / -iname '*modules*dep*' -not -path "/.snapshots/*"
/lib/modules/4.4.21-69-default/modules.dep
/lib/modules/4.4.21-69-default/modules.dep.bin
/lib/modules/4.4.21-69-default/modules.softdep

# centos7
find / -iname '*modules*dep*'

/usr/lib/modules/3.10.0-514.el7.x86_64/modules.dep
/usr/lib/modules/3.10.0-514.el7.x86_64/modules.dep.bin
/usr/lib/modules/3.10.0-514.el7.x86_64/modules.softdep

manpages:

modules.dep.man.txt

Links:

http://tldp.org/LDP/lkmpg/2.6/html/index.html

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